Bandaging is an important part of nursing care and treatment in every healthcare facility.
Properly applied bandaging must meet its purpose and fulfil the aesthetic criteria.
It must be applied so that it does not restrict, but is not too loose. If administered to an open wound, both the dressing and the bandage must be sterile in order to prevent infection.
Bandaging material according to use
- Protection – protects the wound from the cold, impurities, secondary infection, e.g. gauze square, gauze bandage, plaster, etc.
- Compression – pressure bandage used for bleeding – compression of vascular injuries; also included in this category are elastic bandages, compression stockings, leg bandages – gauze bandage, triangular bandage – First Aid
- Fixation – fixing materials are applied to strengthen the bones and joints, i.e. a broken bone; included are adhesive plasters, starch bandage, plaster bandage etc.
- Supporting – maintains a particular part of the body in the desired position, i.e. injury, paralysis, e.g. starch, Zink paste bandages, splints.
- Extended wear – a stretching aid; attached to compensate for the shortening of the limb caused by a broken bone or by damage to a joint by pulling or countermovement (splints, plaster bandages, specific aids, devices with pulleys and weights).
- Redressing – corrective aid; attached to the affected part of the body to facilitate a gradual change in the shape or growth in another direction, used mainly in paediatric orthopaedics.
- Triangular bandage
This is the simplest dressing aid, most often used in first aid. It is made of cotton fabric – a calico bandage or a bandage from nonwoven fabric for single use.
- Hydrofile gauze
Fabric with a high content of natural fibres (approximately 70% cotton and 30% viscose), i.e. ensures high absorbency. The fabric is used in the manufacturing of bandages, gauze squares, tampons, gauze drains.
- Bandage rolls
They are rolled strips of fabric, produced in widths of 3 – 30 cm.
- Hydrofile bandage – hydrofile gauze is used to cover wounds; the sterile forms are used as individual wound dressings. The bandages are light and permeable.
- Flexible elastic bandages can be divided into cohesive bandages, bandages with a medium compressive effect and bandages with a strong compressive effect.
- Cohesive bandages contain a high percentage of natural fibre, and are impregnated with latex, which provides good cohesion. It is used to dress the joints and conical body parts. Bandages with a medium compressive effect and bandages with a strong compressive effect are used to attach a supporting dressing to injuries, where there is damage to the musculoskeletal system, to attach a pressure bandage for bleeding and also in sports bandaging.
- Fixing bandages are hydrofile bandages impregnated with a firming agent to reinforce the bandage.
- Zink paste bandages are impregnated with a special paste. When attaching these bandages, it is necessary to take into account that they contract during drying, therefore they should be attached loosely. Their surface is sticky, so the bandaging must additionally be covered with a hydrofile bandage.
- Starch bandages are made of stiff hydrofile gauze, impregnated with wheat, potato or rice starch. They are wrapped in strips of paper, and stored in a dry place until application. They are used to strengthen the joints in minor injuries. Before use, the bandage must be thoroughly soaked in hot water until the water penetrates all the layers, then wrung dry before application. The starch bandage is applied over a cotton wool dressing attached with a hydrofile bandage.