Urinary disorders

Urinary retention – the accumulation of urine in the bladder joined by the inability to

defecate or frequent urination of small amounts (25-50 ml).


Retention is most common in an enlarged prostate, urethral narrowing, due to medications, embarrassment.

This urinary disorder poses a risk of urinary stagnation, which leads to the risk of infection.

Retention is frequently manifested by pain in the pubic area, frequent urination of small volumes, a disproportionate amount of urine output in comparison to the fluid intake.

Urine incontinence – several types of incontinence can be distinguished. Overall – involves continuous and unpredictable urine discharge. Other types include stress related incontinence, caused by increased intra-abdominal pressure. Urine output is up to 50 ml.


This mostly occurs when coughing, laughing, lifting heavy objects, climbing

stairs. The cause is the loss of bladder and pelvic elasticity. Another type is affective incontinence, which is defined as an involuntary, unpredictable urine discharge in emotional states such as excessive or uncontrollable affection, strong expressions of regret etc.


This disorder can also occur in dementia. Reflex incontinence is of a central

origin and is not accompanied by the urge to urinate. Urge incontinence is

characterized as discharge of urine soon after the beginning of a strong urge to urinate caused by an uncontrollable, involuntary detrusor contraction, which feels unbearable.


It occurs, for example, in chronic inflammation of the urinary tract. Overflow

incontinence, which mainly occurs in older men with prostate disease when the bladder does not empty fully. With the new urine filling the bladder, the increased volume causes the urine to overflow - drip. Finally, there is also incontinence brought about by the insertion of a permanent urinary catheter.


  • Pollakiuria is repeated passing small amounts of urine in short intervals. The causes of pollakiuria include urinary tract infections (cystitis, urethritis), lithiasis (formation of calculus) or emotional lability.
  • Dysuria is difficult and painful urination. The most common causes include local irritation of the urethral meatus by use of inappropriate soap or shower gels, passing of heavily concentrated urine during dehydration, inflammation of the lower urinary tract (cystitis, urethritis), use of medications irritating the lining of the bladder (sulfonamides, cyclophosphamide, amitriptyline).
  • Stranguria – painful urination caused by muscular spasms of the urethra.

You can read : Bladder emptying

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