Diarrhoea is the defecation of a liquid stool in an increased frequency, in which the rapid
passage of the intestinal contents shortens the time of water and electrolytes resorption.
Thefollowing symptoms occur in diarrhoea: Convulsive abdominal pain, difficulty (inability) to keep stools, nausea and vomiting, irritated skin around the anus.
Diarrhoea can be acute or chronic. Acute diarrhoea is most commonly caused by infection (salmonellosis, dysentery, gastroenteritis, etc.) or by dietary mistakes, by allergies, psychological discomfort etc.
Chronic diarrhoea is functional (caused particularly by nerve psychological effects) or organic, caused by intestinal inflammation insufficient pancreatic function etc.
Treatment is based on the cause with the necessary diet adjustment. The main danger of severe diarrhoea is the loss of fluids, electrolytes and metabolic acidosis!
Flatulence (bloating) - excessive amounts of gases in the intestines. Abdominal bloating is usually caused by the alimentary canal opening due to excessive gas content.
The cause is usually excessive air swallowing (aerophagia), diet composition, intestinal bacteria, dyspepsia, intestinal obstruction, etc. An increased pass of flatus through the rectum is called flatulence.
It is important to check the patient’s bowel movements on a daily basis. A record is made in to the nursing documentation. If the patient moved their bowels, it is recorded with +, if the patient moved their bowel several times it is recorded with multiple +++. If the patient did not move their bowel, it is recorded with a 0.