Abduction :  Moving away from the median line

Adduction :  Moving towards the median line

Assistance : Requires help with tasks, but is also able to undertake some

                    parts of task independently

Biomechanics : Looks at effects of movement and normal patterns of                                        movements

Circumduction : Moving through a circle, in combination

Contraction :     Shortening or drawing together

Contractures  : Deformity caused by shortening of muscles, tendons and


Dependent  :    Unable to help, needs full assistance to achieve task

Disability         Any restriction or lack of ability to perform an activity with

                        the socially accepted norms

Dorsal              Relating to the back

Dorsiflexion     Bending of the foot and toes upwards

Ergonomics      Looks at effective use of energy in relation to efficient


Eversion           Turning outwards

Extension         Straightening

External rotation  : Rolling outwards

Flexion    :              Bending

Handicap :          A disadvantage for a given individual resulting from an

                           impairment or disability that prevents fulfilment of a role in

                          what is perceived as the normal manner

Hemiparesis        Weakness/paralysis on one side of the body

Hemiplegia          Paralysis on one side of the body

Impairment         Any loss or abnormality of physical or psychological function

Independent       Needs no assistance with task

Internal rotation : Rolling inwards

Inversion              Turning inwards

Paralysis                Impairment or loss of motor function

Plantar                  Related to the sole of the foot, as in plantar reflex

Position               Posture or placement

Pronation             Turning the palm of the hand downwards

Prone                   Lying face downwards

Quadriplegia        Paralysis of all four limbs

Recumbent          Lying down in the dorsal position, i.e. on the back

Reflex                 An involuntary action

Semi-prone          Lying on one side

Semi-recumbent : Lying down in the dorsal position with a pillow under the                                   head

Supervision         Needs verbal encouragement and observation with the task

Supination           Turning upwards

Supine                Lying on the back with the face upwards

30º tilt                Lying on the back with the skeleton tilted 30º to relieve

                           pressure on the sacrum