Motor function and the ability to move involve all parts of the motor nervous system. Injury, malformation or disease to any
part of this system will therefore affect the individual’s ability to move.
The motor nervous system includes:
The central nervous system (CNS): this is composed of the
brain and spinal cord and is responsible for initiating and co-ordinating movement.
nervous system: this consists of nerve pairings, which radiate to the various parts of the body from the CNS. These pairs of nerves send messages to and from the
ligaments and tendons: these are located throughout the body and respond to sensory information. Muscles use the pulling forces of contraction and work in antagonistic pairs,
that is, they oppose each other.
this provides a system of support with a variety of joints that enable a wide range of movements.
Function of the spine:
Protects the spinal cord
Provides central support and stability
Enables a range of movement
Ligament and muscle attachment
Functions of the discs:
Act as shock absorbers
Reduction of friction
Some of the risks associated with immobility include:
increased risk of deep vein thrombosis
increased risk to skin integrity and pressure sore development
increased risk of development of chest infection/pneumonia
increased risk of urinary tract infection
increased risk of constipation
decreased joint and muscle movement resulting in muscle atrophy and
increase in generalized aches and pains, for example drop foot and contractures
loss of independence
loss of self-esteem
increased social isolation and loneliness
increased inability to function independently in society