The determinants of transverse tubular volume in resting skeletal muscle
The transverse tubular (t)-system of skeletal muscle couples sarcolemmal electrical excitation with contraction deep within the fibre. Exercise, pathology and the composition of the extracellular fluid (ECF) can alter t-system volume (t-volume). T-volume changes are thought to contribute to fatigue, rhabdomyolysis and disruption of excitation–contraction coupling.
Up until that point, structure–function studies focused on examining the isolated extracellular domains of the iGluR, such as the ligand-binding pocket (LBD) and amino-terminal (NTD).
Structure and gating of tetrameric glutamate receptors
Ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) are ligand-gated ion channels that open their ion-conducting pores in response to the binding of agonist glutamate. In recent years, significant progress has been achieved in studies of iGluRs by determining numerous structures of isolated water-soluble ligand-binding and amino-terminal domains, as well as solving the first crystal structure of the full-length AMPA receptor in the closed, antagonist-bound state.
Glutamate receptors are ligand-gated ion channels that mediate fast excitatory synaptic transmission throughout the central nervous system. Functional receptors are homo- or heteromeric tetramers with each subunit contributing a re-entrant pore loop that dips into the membrane from the cytoplasmic side